Liutprand of Cremona reports a rumour that Bajan, son of Simeon I of Bulgaria , could use magic to turn himself into a wolf. When his treacherous wife stole his clothing needed to restore his human form, he escaped the king's wolf hunt by imploring the king for mercy and accompanied the king thereafter.
His behaviour at court was so much gentler than when his wife and her new husband appeared at court, that his hateful attack on the couple was deemed justly motivated, and the truth was revealed. The German word werwolf is recorded by Burchard von Worms in the 11th century, and by Bertold of Regensburg in the 13th, but is not recorded in all of medieval German poetry or fiction.
References to werewolves are also rare in England, presumably because whatever significance the "wolf-men" of Germanic paganism had carried, the associated beliefs and practices had been successfully repressed after Christianization or if they persisted, they did so outside of the sphere of literacy available to us. The Germanic pagan traditions associated with wolf-men persisted longest in the Scandinavian Viking Age.
The Scandinavian traditions of this period may have spread to Kievan Rus' , giving rise to the Slavic "werewolf" tales. The 11th-century Belarusian Prince Vseslav of Polotsk was considered to have been a Werewolf, capable of moving at superhuman speeds, as recounted in The Tale of Igor's Campaign :. From Kiev, prowling, he reached, before the cocks crew, Tmutorokan. The path of Great Sun, as a wolf, prowling, he crossed. For him in Polotsk they rang for matins early at St.
Sophia the bells; but he heard the ringing in Kiev.
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The situation as described during the medieval period gives rise to the dual form of werewolf folklore in Early Modern Europe. On one hand the "Germanic" werewolf, which becomes associated with the witchcraft panic from around , and on the other hand the "Slavic" werewolf or vlkolak , which becomes associated with the concept of the revenant or "vampire".
The "eastern" werewolf-vampire is found in the folklore of Central and Eastern Europe, including Hungary, Romania and the Balkans, while the "western" werewolf-sorcerer is found in France, German-speaking Europe and in the Baltic. There were numerous reports of werewolf attacks — and consequent court trials — in 16th-century France. In some of the cases there was clear evidence against the accused of murder and cannibalism , but none of association with wolves; in other cases people have been terrified by such creatures, such as that of Gilles Garnier in Dole in , there was clear evidence against some wolf but none against the accused.
Werewolvery was a common accusation in witch trials throughout their history, and it featured even in the Valais witch trials , one of the earliest such trials altogether, in the first half of the 15th century. Likewise, in the Vaud , child-eating werewolves were reported as early as A peak of attention to lycanthropy came in the late 16th to early 17th century, as part of the European witch-hunts.
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A number of treatises on werewolves were written in France during and Werewolves were sighted in in Anjou , and a teenage werewolf was sentenced to life imprisonment in Bordeaux in Henry Boguet wrote a lengthy chapter about werewolves in In the Vaud, werewolves were convicted in and in A treatise by a Vaud pastor in , however, argued that lycanthropy was purely an illusion.
After this, the only further record from the Vaud dates to it is that of a boy who claimed he and his mother could change themselves into wolves, which was, however, not taken seriously. At the beginning of the 17th century witchcraft was prosecuted by James I of England , who regarded "warwoolfes" as victims of delusion induced by "a natural superabundance of melancholic". The only part of Europe which showed vigorous interest in werewolves after was the Holy Roman Empire.
At least nine works on lycanthropy were printed in Germany between and In the Austrian and Bavarian Alps, belief in werewolves persisted well into the 18th century. Until the 20th century, wolf attacks on humans were an occasional, but still widespread feature of life in Europe. An idea is explored in Sabine Baring-Gould 's work The Book of Werewolves is that werewolf legends may have been used to explain serial killings.
Perhaps the most famous example is the case of Peter Stumpp executed in , the German farmer, and alleged serial killer and cannibal , also known as the Werewolf of Bedburg.
In Asian Cultures [ which? See werecats. Common Turkic folklore holds a different, reverential light to the werewolf legends in that Turkic Central Asian shamans after performing long and arduous rites would voluntarily be able to transform into the humanoid "Kurtadam" literally meaning Wolfman. Since the wolf was the totemic ancestor animal of the Turkic peoples, they would be respectful of any shaman who was in such a form. Some modern researchers have tried to explain the reports of werewolf behaviour with recognised medical conditions. Dr Lee Illis of Guy's Hospital in London wrote a paper in entitled On Porphyria and the Aetiology of Werewolves , in which he argues that historical accounts on werewolves could have in fact been referring to victims of congenital porphyria , stating how the symptoms of photosensitivity , reddish teeth and psychosis could have been grounds for accusing a sufferer of being a werewolf.
However, Woodward dismissed the possibility, as the rarity of the disease ruled it out from happening on a large scale, as werewolf cases were in medieval Europe. Woodward focused on the idea that being bitten by a werewolf could result in the victim turning into one, which suggested the idea of a transmittable disease like rabies. Lycanthropy can also be met with as the main content of a delusion, for example, the case of a woman has been reported who during episodes of acute psychosis complained of becoming four different species of animals.
The beliefs classed together under lycanthropy are far from uniform, and the term is somewhat capriciously applied. The transformation may be temporary or permanent; the were-animal may be the man himself metamorphosed; may be his double whose activity leaves the real man to all appearance unchanged; may be his soul , which goes forth seeking whomever it may devour, leaving its body in a state of trance ; or it may be no more than the messenger of the human being, a real animal or a familiar spirit , whose intimate connection with its owner is shown by the fact that any injury to it is believed, by a phenomenon known as repercussion, to cause a corresponding injury to the human being.
Werewolves were said in European folklore to bear tell-tale physical traits even in their human form.
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These included the meeting of both eyebrows at the bridge of the nose, curved fingernails, low-set ears and a swinging stride. One method of identifying a werewolf in its human form was to cut the flesh of the accused, under the pretense that fur would be seen within the wound. A Russian superstition recalls a werewolf can be recognised by bristles under the tongue. According to some Swedish accounts, the werewolf could be distinguished from a regular wolf by the fact that it would run on three legs, stretching the fourth one backwards to look like a tail.
Various methods for becoming a werewolf have been reported, one of the simplest being the removal of clothing and putting on a belt made of wolfskin, probably as a substitute for the assumption of an entire animal skin which also is frequently described. Ralston in his Songs of the Russian People gives the form of incantation still familiar in Russia. In Italy, France and Germany, it was said that a man or woman could turn into a werewolf if he or she, on a certain Wednesday or Friday, slept outside on a summer night with the full moon shining directly on his or her face.
In other cases, the transformation was supposedly accomplished by Satanic allegiance for the most loathsome ends, often for the sake of sating a craving for human flesh. And they do dispose themselves as very wolves, in worrying and killing, and most of humane creatures. The phenomenon of repercussion, the power of animal metamorphosis , or of sending out a familiar , real or spiritual, as a messenger, and the supernormal powers conferred by association with such a familiar, are also attributed to the magician , male and female, all the world over; and witch superstitions are closely parallel to, if not identical with, lycanthropic beliefs, the occasional involuntary character of lycanthropy being almost the sole distinguishing feature.
In another direction the phenomenon of repercussion is asserted to manifest itself in connection with the bush-soul of the West African and the nagual of Central America ; but though there is no line of demarcation to be drawn on logical grounds, the assumed power of the magician and the intimate association of the bush-soul or the nagual with a human being are not termed lycanthropy. The curse of lycanthropy was also considered by some scholars as being a divine punishment.
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Werewolf literature shows many examples of God or saints allegedly cursing those who invoked their wrath with werewolfism. Such is the case of Lycaon , who was turned into a wolf by Zeus as punishment for slaughtering one of his own sons and serving his remains to the gods as a dinner.
Those who were excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church were also said to become werewolves. The power of transforming others into wild beasts was attributed not only to malignant sorcerers, but to Christian saints as well. Omnes angeli, boni et Mali, ex virtute naturali habent potestatem transmutandi corpora nostra "All angels, good and bad have the power of transmutating our bodies" was the dictum of St. Thomas Aquinas. Patrick was said to have transformed the Welsh King Vereticus into a wolf; Natalis supposedly cursed an illustrious Irish family whose members were each doomed to be a wolf for seven years.
In other tales the divine agency is even more direct, while in Russia, again, men supposedly became werewolves when incurring the wrath of the Devil. A notable exception to the association of Lycanthropy and the Devil, comes from a rare and lesser known account of an year-old man named Thiess. Their efforts ensured that the Devil and his minions did not carry off the grain from local failed crops down to hell.
Thiess was steadfast in his assertions, claiming that werewolves in Germany and Russia also did battle with the devil's minions in their own versions of hell, and insisted that when werewolves died, their souls were welcomed into heaven as reward for their service. Thiess was ultimately sentenced to ten lashes for Idolatry and superstitious belief.
Various methods have existed for removing the werewolf form. In antiquity, the Ancient Greeks and Romans believed in the power of exhaustion in curing people of lycanthropy. The victim would be subjected to long periods of physical activity in the hope of being purged of the malady. This practice stemmed from the fact that many alleged werewolves would be left feeling weak and debilitated after committing depredations. In medieval Europe, traditionally, there are three methods one can use to cure a victim of werewolfism; medicinally usually via the use of wolfsbane , surgically, or by exorcism.
However, many of the cures advocated by medieval medical practitioners proved fatal to the patients. A Sicilian belief of Arabic origin holds that a werewolf can be cured of its ailment by striking it on the forehead or scalp with a knife. Another belief from the same culture involves the piercing of the werewolf's hands with nails. Sometimes, less extreme methods were used. In the German lowland of Schleswig-Holstein, a werewolf could be cured if one were to simply address it three times by its Christian name, while one Danish belief holds that merely scolding a werewolf will cure it.
Hubert has also been cited as both cure for and protection from lycanthropes. Before the end of the 19th century, the Greeks believed that the corpses of werewolves, if not destroyed, would return to life in the form of wolves or hyenas which prowled battlefields, drinking the blood of dying soldiers. In the same vein, in some rural areas of Germany, Poland and Northern France, it was once believed that people who died in mortal sin came back to life as blood-drinking wolves. Defense Click this icon for the page on Defense. Mana Deflector Click this icon for the page on Mana Deflector.
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Navigation menu Personal tools Create account Log in. Namespaces Page Discussion. Views Read View form View source View history. Affiliates Our Patrons J-Box. This page was last edited on 21 July , at The wolfwere and jackalwere are often seen as variant offshoots of werecreatures, but are not, in fact, the same type of creature.
Similarly the lythari , an elven version of the werewolf, are actually good-aligned and considered protectors of the elven lands. In the Forgotten Realms, many werewolves worship Malar. They may help hunters and others who worship or pay homage to Malar by hunting for them during Winter in areas where this is a concern.
Packs of werebeings who worship Malar, will engage in what is called a "High Hunt" in which a human is hunted. If the human evades the pack, they are given one boon.
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