Canada was a way-station through which immigrants from other lands stopped for a while, ultimately heading to the U.
In —, 7. At the outset of the American Revolutionary War , the American revolutionaries hoped the French Canadians in Quebec and the Colonists in Nova Scotia would join their rebellion and they were pre-approved for joining the United States in the Articles of Confederation. When Canada was invaded , thousands joined the American cause and formed regiments that fought during the war; however most remained neutral and some joined the British effort. Britain advised the French Canadians that the British Empire already enshrined their rights in the Quebec Act , which the American colonies had viewed as one of the Intolerable Acts.
The American invasion was a fiasco and Britain tightened its grip on its northern possessions; in , a major British invasion into New York led to the surrender of the entire British army at Saratoga, and led France to enter the war as an ally of the U. The French Canadians largely ignored France's appeals for solidarity.
Among the original Loyalists there were 3, free African Americans. Most went to Nova Scotia and in , migrated to Sierra Leone. About black slaves were brought in by Loyalist owners; they remained slaves in Canada until the Empire abolished slavery in Before , about 30,—40, black people entered Canada; many were already free and others were escaped slaves who came through the Underground Railroad.
The Treaty of Paris , which ended the war, called for British forces to vacate all their forts south of the Great Lakes border. Britain refused to do so, citing failure of the United States to provide financial restitution for Loyalists who had lost property in the war. The Jay Treaty in with Great Britain resolved that lingering issue and the British departed the forts. Thomas Jefferson saw the nearby British imperial presence as a threat to the United States , and so he opposed the Jay Treaty , and it became one of the major political issues in the United States at the time.
Tensions mounted again after , erupting into the War of , when the Americans declared war on Britain. The Americans were angered by British harassment of U. American "honor" was an implicit issue. The Americans were outgunned by more than 10 to 1 by the Royal Navy , but could call on an army much larger than the British garrison in Canada, and so a land invasion of Canada was proposed as the only feasible, and most advantegous means of attacking the British Empire.cowhimooterbass.tk
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Americans on the western frontier also hoped an invasion would bring an end to British support of Native American resistance to the westward expansion of the United States , typified by Tecumseh 's coalition of tribes. Once war broke out, the American strategy was to seize Canada—perhaps as a means of forcing concessions from the British Empire, or perhaps in order to annex it. There was some hope that settlers in western Canada—most of them recent immigrants from the U.
However, the American invasions were defeated primarily by British regulars with support from Native Americans and Upper Canada Ontario militia. Aided by the powerful Royal Navy, a series of British raids on the American coast were highly successful, culminating with an attack on Washington that resulted in the British burning of the White House , Capitol , and other public buildings.
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At the end of the war, Britain's American Indian allies had largely been defeated, and the Americans controlled a strip of Western Ontario centered on Fort Malden. However, Britain held much of Maine, and, with the support of their remaining American Indian allies, huge areas of the Old Northwest, including Wisconsin and much of Michigan and Illinois. With the surrender of Napoleon in , Britain ended naval policies that angered Americans; with the defeat of the Indian tribes the threat to American expansion was ended.
The upshot was both sides had asserted their honour, Canada was not annexed, and London and Washington had nothing more to fight over. The war was ended by the Treaty of Ghent , which took effect in February Canada reduced American immigration for fear of undue American influence, and built up the Anglican church as a counterweight to the largely American Methodist and Baptist churches. In later years, Anglophone Canadians, especially in Ontario, viewed the War of as a heroic and successful resistance against invasion and as a victory that defined them as a people.
The myth that the Canadian militia had defeated the invasion almost single-handed, known logically as the "militia myth", became highly prevalent after the war, having been propounded by John Strachan , Anglican Bishop of York. In the aftermath of the War of , pro-imperial conservatives led by Anglican Bishop John Strachan took control in Ontario "Upper Canada" , and promoted the Anglican religion as opposed to the more republican Methodist and Baptist churches.
A small interlocking elite, known as the Family Compact took full political control. Democracy, as practiced in the US, was ridiculed.
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The policies had the desired effect of deterring immigration from United States. Revolts in favor of democracy in Ontario and Quebec "Lower Canada" in were suppressed; many of the leaders fled to the US. They raided the town St. The three Confederates escaped to Canada where they were arrested, but then released. Many Americans suspected — falsely — that the Canadian government knew of the raid ahead of time. There was widespread anger when the raiders were released by a local court in Canada. Seward let the British government know, "it is impossible to consider those proceedings as either legal, just or friendly towards the United States.
One result was toleration of Fenian efforts to use the U. More serious was the demand for a huge payment to cover the damages caused, on the notion that British involvement had lengthened the war. Seward negotiated the Alaska Purchase with Russia in , he intended it as the first step in a comprehensive plan to gain control of the entire northwest Pacific Coast. Seward was a firm believer in Manifest Destiny , primarily for its commercial advantages to the U.
Seward expected British Columbia to seek annexation to the U. Soon other elements endorsed annexation, Their plan was to annex British Columbia , Red River Colony Manitoba , and Nova Scotia , in exchange for the dropping the damage claims. The idea reached a peak in the spring and summer of , with American expansionists, Canadian separatists, and British anti-imperialists seemingly combining forces.
The plan was dropped for multiple reasons. London continued to stall, American commercial and financial groups pressed Washington for a quick settlement of the dispute on a cash basis, growing Canadian nationalist sentiment in British Columbia called for staying inside the British Empire, Congress became preoccupied with Reconstruction, and most Americans showed little interest in territorial expansion.
The " Alabama Claims " dispute went to international arbitration. Britain paid and the episode ended in peaceful relations. Canada became a self-governing dominion in in internal affairs while Britain controlled diplomacy and defense policy.
Prior to Confederation, there was an Oregon boundary dispute in which the Americans claimed the 54th degree latitude. That issue was resolved by splitting the disputed territory; the northern half became British Columbia, and the southern half the states of Washington and Oregon. Strained relations with America continued, however, due to a series of small-scale armed incursions named the Fenian raids by Irish-American Civil War veterans across the border from to in an attempt to trade Canada for Irish independence.
The British government, in charge of diplomatic relations, protested cautiously, as Anglo-American relations were tense. Much of the tension was relieved as the Fenians faded away and in by the settlement of the Alabama Claims , when Britain paid the U. Disputes over ocean boundaries on Georges Bank and over fishing, whaling, and sealing rights in the Pacific were settled by international arbitration, setting an important precedent. After , the pace of industrialization and urbanization was much faster in the United States, drawing a wide range of immigrants from the North.
It was common for people to move back and forth across the border, such as seasonal lumberjacks, entrepreneurs looking for larger markets, and families looking for jobs in the textile mills that paid much higher wages than in Canada. The southward migration slacked off after , as Canadian industry began a growth spurt.
By then, the American frontier was closing, and thousands of farmers looking for fresh land moved from the United States north into the Prairie Provinces. The net result of the flows were that in there were , American-born residents in Canada 3. A short-lived controversy was the Alaska boundary dispute , settled in favor of the United States in The issue was unimportant until a gold rush brought tens of thousands of men to Canada's Yukon, and they had to arrive through American ports.
Canada needed its port and claimed that it had a legal right to a port near the present American town of Haines , Alaska. It would provide an all-Canadian route to the rich goldfields. The dispute was settled by arbitration, and the British delegate voted with the Americans—to the astonishment and disgust of Canadians who suddenly realized that Britain considered its relations with the United States paramount compared to those with Canada.
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The arbitration validated the status quo, but made Canada angry at London. To head off future embarrassments, in the two sides signed the International Boundary Waters Treaty and the International Joint Commission was established to manage the Great Lakes and keep them disarmed. It was amended in World War II to allow the building and training of warships. Anti-Americanism reached a shrill peak in in Canada.
Canadian manufacturing interests were alarmed that free trade would allow the bigger and more efficient American factories to take their markets. The Conservatives made it a central campaign issue in the election , warning that it would be a "sell out" to the United States with economic annexation a special danger. Canada demanded and received permission from London to send its own delegation to the Versailles Peace Talks in , with the proviso that it sign the treaty under the British Empire.
Canada subsequently took responsibility for its own foreign and military affairs in the s. Its first ambassador to the United States, Vincent Massey , was named in Canada became an active member of the British Commonwealth , the League of Nations , and the World Court , none of which included the U.
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Over 50, people heard Harding speak in Stanley Park. Canada retaliated with higher tariffs of its own against American products, and moved toward more trade within the British Commonwealth. Down to the s the war and naval departments of both nations designed hypothetical war game scenarios on paper with the other as an enemy. These were routine training exercises; the departments were never told to get ready for a real war. In , Canada developed Defence Scheme No.
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Herbert Hoover meeting in with British Ambassador Sir Esme Howard agreed on the "absurdity of contemplating the possibility of war between the United States and the British Empire. President Franklin Roosevelt gave a public speech at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, declaring that the United States would not sit idly by if another power tried to dominate Canada. Diplomats saw it as a clear warning to Germany not to attack Canada. The two nations cooperated closely in World War II,  as both nations saw new levels of prosperity and a determination to defeat the Axis powers.
Roosevelt were determined not to repeat the mistakes of their predecessors. King sought to raise Canada's international visibility by hosting the August Quadrant conference in Quebec on military and political strategy; he was a gracious host but was kept out of the important meetings by Winston Churchill and Roosevelt.
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